Implementasi Kebijakan Publik Van Meter and Horn


Implementasi Kebijakan Publik Van Meter and Van Horn yang dikemukakan oleh Hill and Hupe (2002:45) mengatakan :
Van Meter and Van Horns’s presentation of their theoretical perspective starts with a consideration of the need to classify policies in terms that will throw light upon implementation difficulties. Their approach is comparative simple. They suggest that there is a need to take into account the among of change required and the level of consensus. Hence they hypothesize that implementation will be most successful where only marginal change is required and goal consensus is high’. They present this, however, in term of an interrelationship, suggesting, for example, that high consensus may make high change possible, as in a wartime situation. We will see that a number of subsequent theorists have tried to get beyond these very basic propositions about the characteristics of policy, though with only limited success. Van Meter and Van Horn go on to suggest a model in which six variables are linked dynamically to the production of an outcome ‘performance’. The model is set out in figure below.

Dengan gambar tersebut, Meter dan Van Horn itu dalam Hill and Hupe (2002:46) menjelaskan terdapat enam variabel dalam impelementasi kebijakan publik sebagai berikut:
  • policy standards and objectives, which elaborate on the overall goals of the policy decision… to provide concrete and more specific standards for assessing performance;
  • the resources and incentives made available;
  • the quality of inter-organizational relationship (we find in their discussion of this, as in so much of the American literature on implementation, an extensive discussion of aspect of federalism;
  • the characteristics of the implementation agencies, including issues like organizational control but also, going back surely to inter-organizational issues, ‘the agency’s formal and informal linkages with the “policy-making” or “policy-enforcing” body;
  • the economic, social and political environment; and
  • the ‘disposition’ or response of the implementers, involving three elements: ‘their cognition (comprehension, understanding) of the policy, the direction of their response to it (acceptance, neutrality, rejection) and the intensity of that response.
Dari penjelasan di atas diketahui bahwa terdapat enam variabel yang membentuk kinerja kebijakan publik, yaitu policy standards and objectives, the resources and incentives, the quality of inter-organizational relationship, the characteristics of the implementation agencies, the economic, social and political environment, dan response of the implementers. Dalam konteks implementasi kebijakan, maka dapat dirangkai suatu konsep pemahaman: (1) Policy standards and objectives dapat diartikan sebagai tujuan dan standard pencapaian tujuan implementasi kebijakan publik; (2) The resources and incentives dapat diartikan sebagai sumber daya dan insentif implementasi kebijakan publik; (3) The quality of inter-organizational relationship dapat diartikan sebagai kualitas hubungan antar instansi yang terkait dalam proses implementasi kebijakan publik; (4) The characteristics of the implementation agencies dapat diartikan sebagai karakteristik instansi pelaksana kebijakan atau yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan kedudukan, wewenang dan fungsi masing-masing instansi yang terkait dalam proses implementasi kebijakan publik; (5) The economic, social and political environment dapat diartikan sebagai kondisi kehidupan sosial ekonomi masyarakat dalam wilayah implementasi kebijakan publik; dan (6) The ‘dispositon’ or response of the implementers, involving three elemens: ‘their cognition of the policy, the direction of their response to it and the intensity of that response dapat diartikan sebagai kecenderungan tanggungjawab pelaksana kebijakan yang meliputi kesadaran, arahan dan intensitas tanggungjawab terhadap implementasi kebijakan publik.


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