Implementasi Kebijakan Publik Edward III


Menurut Edward III (1980: 9-12) ada empat variabel atau critical factors yang menentukan keberhasilan implementasi kebijakan, yaitu communication, resources, disposition or attitude, dan bureaucratic structure. Keempat critical factors yang dimaksud dijelaskan Edward III berikut :
a. Communication, the first requirement for effective policy implementation is that those who are to implement a decision must know what they are supposed to do.
b. Resources, implementation orders may be accurately transmitted, clear, and consistent, but if implementations lack the resources necessary to carry out policies, implementations is likely to be ineffective.
c. Dispositions or attitude, if implementers are well-disposed toward a particular policy, they are more likely to carry it out as the original decision makers intended. But when implementers attitudes or perspectives differ from the decision makers, the process of implementing a policy becomes more complicated.
d. Bureaucratic structure, policy implementers may know what to do and have sufficient leisure and resources to do it, but they may still be hampered in implementation by the structures of the organizations in which they serve. Two prominent characteristics of bureaucracies are standard operating procedures (SOPs) and fragmentation.

Untuk memahami secara lebih komprehensif, maka pemahaman keempat faktor tersebut maka diperlukan konsep pemahaman yang mendalam tentang komunikasi, sumber daya, kecenderungan sikap pelaksana kebijakan, dan struktur birokrasi. Mengenai fungsi dan aktivitas komunikasi dalam proses implementasi kebijakan publik Edward III (1980:10) menjelaskan berikut :
For implementation to be effective, those whose responsibility it is to implement a decision must know what they are supposed to do. Orders to implement policies must be transmitted to the appropriate personnel, and they must be clear, accurate, and consistent. If the policies decision makers wish to see implemented are not clearly specified, they may be misunderstood by those at whom they are directed. Obviously, confusion by implementers about what to do increases the chances that they will not implement a policy as those who passed or ordered it intended.

Dari pendapat Edward III itu terungkap bahwa agar implementasi kebijakan menjadi efektif, maka para pihak yang bertanggungjawab atas pelaksanaan suatu keputusan dan harus benar-benar memahami apa yang harus dilakukan. Untuk itu, arahan terhadap implementasi kebijakan harus ditransmisikan secara tepat, jelas, akurat dan konsisten. Dengan demikian suatu pola komunikasi yang tepat, jelas, akurat dan konsisten merupakan hal-hal penting yang harus diperhatikan dalam mengkomunikasikan suatu keputusan dari satu pihak kepada para pihak yang terlibat dengan keputusan tersebut. Misalnya, keputusan mengenai standar pelayanan minimal yang dibakukan perlu ditransmisikan secara tepat, jelas, akurat dan konsisten kepada para aparatur pelayanan kesehatan.

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